Polysaccharides I: Structure, Characterization and Use by Anna Ebringerová, Zdenka Hromádková, Thomas Heinze (auth.),

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By Anna Ebringerová, Zdenka Hromádková, Thomas Heinze (auth.), Thomas Heinze (eds.)

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"This e-book comprises 5 chapters, that are good written and may be of use to either nonexpert and specialist readers. … The chapters are rather up to date with references to papers released in 2004, and the abbreviations and terminology inside of are basically outlined making those chapters really readable for researchers attracted to project their first reviews on those very important polysaccharides. … In precis, this publication may be valuable to scientists and engineers operating with polysaccharides … ." (Robert J. Linhardt, magazine of the yank Chemical Society, Vol. 128 (18), 2006)

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In comparison to the water-extractable β-glucan-rich fractions, the alkali-extractable ones were characterized by high ratios of cellotriosyl/cellotetraosyl units and large amounts of long, contiguously linked (1 → 4)-linkage segments. Such polymers exhibit a tendency for interchain aggregation through strong hydrogen bonding along the cellulose-like regions and hence lower solubility. Computer models demonstrated that randomly dispersed (1 → 3)-β-Glcp units among the cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl segments confer increased flexibility to the molecular form [310].

As single side chains, d-galactopyranose (α-d-Galp) residues tend to be 6-linked to the mannan backbone of both mannan-type polymers in different proportions. The resulting polymers are named galactomannans and galactoglucomannans. For such classification, a tolerance limit for the proportion of galactosyl groups (15%) has been suggested [6]. 1 Galactomannans Mannans free of galactosyl side chains are rather rare. Slightly galactosylated mannans (∼ 4% galactose), considered as linear β-(1 → 4)-d-mannans, have been isolated from the seed endosperm of vegetable ivory nut (Phytelephas macrocarpa) and date (Phoenix dactylifera) [175].

In contrast, storage XGs are extractable by hot-water treatments from the seeds. Usually, stepwise alkaline extractions were applied to isolate non-seed XG. Extraction methods with optimized conditions were reported for the isolation of XG from depectinized apple pomace [257–259]. The difficulties in the extraction of XG from the cell walls as well as its separation from the other cell-wall polymers have been interpreted by various suggestions [260]. In addition to the existence of strong hydrogen bonds with cellulose and some hemicelluloses, various covalent bonds have been considered to fix the XG in the cell walls [261] such as esters with the COOH groups 34 A.

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