By Michael Prestwich
During this thorough and illuminating paintings, Michael Prestwich presents a accomplished research of Plantagenet England, a dramatic and turbulent interval which observed many alterations. In politics it observed Simon de Montfort's problem to the crown in Henry II's reign and it witnessed the deposition of Edward I. against this, it additionally observed the hugely winning principles of Edward I and his grandson, Edward III. Political associations have been remodeled with the advance of parliament and warfare was once a dominant subject: Wales used to be conquered and the Scottish Wars of Independence began in Edward I's reign, and less than Edward III there have been triumphs at Cr?cy and Poitiers. outdoor of politics, English society used to be constructing a constitution, from the good magnates on the most sensible to the peasantry on the backside. monetary alterations have been additionally major, from the expansionary interval of the 13th century to years of hassle within the fourteenth century, culminating within the maximum demographic catastrophe of ancient instances, the Black loss of life. during this quantity within the New Oxford background of britain Michael Prestwich brings this attention-grabbing century to lifestyles.
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Additional resources for Plantagenet England 1225-1360 (New Oxford History of England)
It also had wider eVects on politics and war. 13 This was a signiWcant element in the political crisis of 1258, a crisis that saw widespread popular resentment directed at the government. Poor harvests from 1294 to 1297 coincided with the immense eVorts put into war on three fronts and a consequent political crisis. In the disastrous years of 1315 and 1316 the government was dominated by Thomas, earl of Lancaster, who had many failings as a politician, but his task was undeniably made much more diYcult by the weather of those awful years.
L. Farmer, ‘Prices and Wages’, in Agrarian History, 721–3. 6 i ntroductory bad. These bad harvests might result from a wet autumn followed by a wet winter and summer, or from a wet autumn followed by a dry summer. A hard winter was not an important factor, and might indeed be followed by a good harvest. 9 What the evidence of grain yields strongly suggests is that the weather became more variable and more unpredictable in the early fourteenth century. This unpredictability was diYcult to cope with, but what caused the most problems was the fact that the successive years 1315 and 1316, and in some regions 1317 as well, saw extremely poor weather with incessant rain.
The status of the forest was a legal one. In the forest the common law was supplemented by special forest law. The crown had special rights in the forest, which were intended to preserve hunting, notably of ‘the beasts of the forest’: red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, and wild boar. There were, as a result, prohibitions on the carrying of bows and arrows. Dogs had to have their claws removed. The woods in which the deer lived were also protected. Clearing (or assarting) land within the bounds of the forest, the construction of hedges and ditches, and much of the business of agriculture were strictly controlled.