By Kenneth Baclawski (auth.), Peter J. Hilton, Gail S. Young (eds.)

It is shut sufficient to the tip of the century to make a wager as to what the Encyclopedia Britannica article at the heritage of arithmetic will record in 2582: "We have acknowledged that the dominating topic of the 19th Century was once the advance and alertness of the idea of features of 1 variable. firstly of the 20th Century, mathematicians became expectantly to the research off unctions of a number of variables. yet completely unforeseen problems have been met, new phenomena have been came upon, and new fields of arithmetic sprung as much as learn and grasp them. for this reason, other than the place improvement of tools from previous centuries persevered, there has been a balk from functions. lots of the most sensible mathematicians of the 1st two-thirds of the century committed their efforts completely to natural mathe matics. within the final 3rd, besides the fact that, the strong equipment devised via then for higher-dimensional difficulties have been became onto functions, and the instruments of utilized arithmetic have been tremendously replaced. via the top of the century, the transitority overemphasis on natural arithmetic used to be thoroughly long gone and the normal interconnections among natural arithmetic and purposes restored. "This century additionally observed the 1st primitive beginnings of the digital calculator, whose improvement within the subsequent century ended in our glossy tools of dealing with mathematics.

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**Additional resources for New Directions in Applied Mathematics: Papers Presented April 25/26, 1980, on the Occasion of the Case Centennial Celebration**

**Example text**

The resulting operator is a generalization of the Laplace-Beltrami operator; it will be hypoelliptic but typically not elliptic. Recall that an m-dimensional Wiener process w has a O(m) invariance in the sense that the statistical properties of the solution of an Ito equation dx = are identical with those of the dx f(x) dt + G(x) dw Ito equations = f(x) dt + G(x)O(x) dw where 8(x) is an orthogonal matrix depending smoothly on x. This O(m) invariance means that the same group of transformations investigated in connection with the local canonical form is relevant here as well.

8)'. 8) but leaving the local index unchanged. 50 Christopher I. Byrnes and Tyrone E. Duncan Thus, if the zeroes and poles of G(s) do not coincide, Cauchy Ind(G) = Arnol'd-Maslov Ind(G). 8)' to prove this statement. Here, we shall follow Arnol'd [1 ]. 9) and therefore leads to the invariant [G] E 1t1(U(m» ~ Z. 10)' On the other hand, we claim degCJjy - iAAs»(1 + iAAS»-1) = G(S~=oo Cauchy Indso(G). 11) to calculate the degree of a product of algebraic functions gj(s) = (1 - iAAs»(1 + iAAs)t 1 which take values e in V(1) for s real.

Pm/2} to be {1, 2, ... , m12} if m is even and {O, 1, ... , (m - 1)/2} if m is odd. The total cost will then be expressible in terms of eigenvalues of Y. Say that the eigenvalues of Y with positive imaginary parts are iA,l> iA,2, ... , iA,. listed in decreasing size of the imaginary part. , we see that the minimum cost is just r::; m12. As for the lack of uniqueness of u, of course x = U implies Ox = Ou and so Ou and u accomplish the same transfer as long as 0' YO = Y. On the other hand, in view of the specific form of the optimal control we see that any two optimal u's which steer (0,0) to (x, Y) must be so related.