By Brian M. Dale, Mark A. Brown, Richard C. Semelka
This 5th variation of the main obtainable advent to MRI rules and functions from well known academics within the box presents an comprehensible but entire update.
- Accessible introductory advisor from popular lecturers within the field
- Provides a concise but thorough advent for MRI targeting primary physics, pulse sequences, and medical purposes with no featuring complicated math
- Takes a pragmatic technique, together with up to date protocols, and helps technical suggestions with thorough motives and illustrations
- Highlights sections which are without delay correct to radiology board exams
- Presents new info at the newest experiment concepts and functions together with three Tesla complete physique scanners, questions of safety, and the nephrotoxic results of gadolinium-based distinction media
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Extra info for MRI Basic Principles and Applications
Thinner slices require larger GSS. Once GSS is determined by the slice thickness, the central frequency is calculated using Figure 4-1 For a given range (bandwidth) of frequencies included in the rf pulse, the desired slice thickness is determined by the slice selection gradient amplitude. The user interface typically allows variation of slice thickness, which is achieved by increasing or decreasing the slice selection gradient amplitude, as appropriate. qxd 5/16/2004 36 8:39 AM Page 36 MRI Basic Principles and Applications Equation 4-2 to bring the desired location into resonance.
Each row is a measured signal at a particular GPE. The number of rows corresponds to NPE. Signals acquired with high negative amplitude GPE are displayed at the top, low amplitude GPE in the middle, and high positive amplitude GPE at the bottom of the matrix. Each column corresponds to a data point sampled at a different time following the excitation pulse. qxd 5/16/2004 8:40 AM Page 55 55 Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging—Part 2 (a) (b) Figure 5-5 Image data, magnitude (a) and phase (b).
A short delay of time t 3. A 180° rf pulse 4. A second time delay t The initial 90° rf pulse rotates M0 into the transverse plane. During the time t, proton dephasing will occur through T2* relaxation processes and the transverse coherence will diminish. Application of the 180° rf pulse causes the protons to reverse their phases relative to the resonant frequency. The rates and directions of precession for the protons do not change, only their relative phase. If time t elapses again, then the protons will regain their transverse coherence.