Molecular Biology of Long Non-coding RNAs by Daniel C. Factor, Paul J. Tesar (auth.), Ahmad M. Khalil,

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By Daniel C. Factor, Paul J. Tesar (auth.), Ahmad M. Khalil, Jeff Coller (eds.)

​Long non-coding RNAs (lnc)RNAs have emerged as a brand new paradigm in epigenetic rules of the genome. hundreds of thousands of lncRNAs were pointed out and saw in quite a lot of organisms. not like mRNA, lncRNA haven't any protein-coding potential. ​So, whereas their functionality isn't fullyyt transparent, they could function key organizers of protein complexes that let for greater order regulatory occasions. gaining knowledge of those services has been the results of severe study performed of the previous couple of years, and lncRNA study has had numerous serious advancements in the course of that point. This publication will consolidate those principles and versions to higher research an important concerns in lncRNA biology. this may contain serious reports that experience ended in the invention and annotation of lncRNAs in different species, and the molecular mechanisms for a number of lncRNA that experience started to emerge.

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These loci encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors with critical roles in inhibitory interneuron differentiation and migration, as well as in limb patterning during development. Evf2 serves as a transcriptional activator of Dlx5, Dlx6, and Gad1 via direct recruitment of the Dlx2 and Mecp2 transcription factors to enhancer elements in the Dlx5/6 intergenic region. Ectopic expression of Evf2 increased expression of its targets, confirming a role as an RNA regulator with capacity to act in trans.

Consequently, Hox genes are subject to intensive regulation at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels (Pearson et al. 2005; Yekta et al. 2008). In addition to transcription factors and microRNAs, Hox gene clusters also encode hundreds of lncRNAs (Lipshitz et al. 1987; Rinn et al. 2007). Some of these lncRNAs play important roles in modulating the expression of Hox genes (Fig. 5 and Table 4). Hox genes were first identified in the fruit fly D. melanogaster through mutations affecting segmental identities along the posterior–anterior body plan (Lewis 1978).

R. Alvarez-Dominguez et al. recruitment of the PRC2 repressor. In the cytoplasm, H19 has been proposed to downregulate Igf2 translation via sequestering mRNA binding-proteins that promote its translation. Lack of H19 causes embryonic overgrowth due to increased Igf2 dosage. In addition, H19 is reactivated in various cancers where it might influence tumor growth. Thus, H19 regulates growth during development and potentially disease by controlling Igf2 dosage. As with Xist, expression from the H19 locus is itself regulated by various other lncRNAs.

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