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Extra info for [Magazine] New Scientist. Vol. 210. No 2812
Thus, the combination of PV and FC source system forms a good pair with more promising features. Among the earlier work, Tam and Rahman  have proposed an HDGS configuration shown in Fig. 11(a). It consists of two inverters, operating in parallel, whose outputs are tied to the grid through a single, multi-winding, step-up transformer. The drawback with this otherwise elegant scheme is that it does not utilize the available sources efficiently as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is not implemented.
Such a durable package results in a PV module. Series or parallel combinations of PV Modules form a solar panel and a group of PV panels result in a PV array. This is depicted in Fig. 2. Panel Rs Load (RL) PV Cell Module Array Fig. 2 Solar energy utilization in the form of electrical energy through photovoltaic cells. Rs represents series resistance of the PV array. 3 PV technology A PV array has non-linear i-v characteristics as shown in Fig. 2. It generates zero power in open circuit and short circuit conditions.
Hence, grid connected PV systems are very popular. Grid connected PV systems also enable local power 7 generation to meet local power requirements (viz. distributed generation applications). This avoids transmission losses, reduces the load on the central generating station and improves the voltage regulation. λ MPPT + Boost(boost or buckboost topology) PV Array Inverter Grid Stage #2 Stage #1 Fig. 5 General topology showing a PV system feeding the grid. 4 Grid connected PV systems In grid connected PV systems, the inverter is the heart of the system which is responsible for converting the DC power into the required AC form.