Lordship and the Urban Community: Durham and its Overlords, by Margaret Bonney

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By Margaret Bonney

Town of Durham, even though geographically a long way faraway from the centre of political strength in England within the later medieval interval, used to be of significant strategic and ecclesiastical significance in the course of its early background. It used to be the seat of the prince bishops, an army headquarters for the defence of the northern borders of britain, a centre for pilgrimages to the shrine of St Cuthbert and the valuable industry city for the quarter. After tracing Durham's overdue tenth-century origins, the ebook examines the following advancements in spiritual and army construction paintings at the peninsula which observed the expansion of a profitable city neighborhood within the 11th and 12th centuries. This component to the e-book is complemented via the copy of all of the extant medieval plans for Durham in an appendix, which additionally comprises later maps of the city and several other illustrations which aid to provide an explanation for the complicated topography. in addition, even though before everything sight Durham's overlords might sound oppressive, there's little facts of the townsmen's dissatisfaction with their rule, and none of city rebel in overdue medieval Durham.

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66 This expensive improvement in communications between the Bishop's Borough and the east bank of the River 63 64 65 66 qui prorsus ab omni episcopi servitio sint liberi nisi forte maceries civitatis sit reparanda, ad quam non mains quam de tot civitatis mercatoribus opus ab eis exigatur: Durham Episcopal Charters, p p . 6—15; for the dates of the bishops of D u r h a m , see appendix 3. R . J . C r a m p , ' A cross from St O s w a l d ' s church, D u r h a m , and its stylistic relationships', DUJ, 57 (1966), 1 1 9 - 2 4 ; R.

For the dates of Puiset's episcopacy, see appendix 3. 21 Urban origins very success of Durham's fortifications. Durham soon gained a reputation for invulnerability in the early medieval period. The castle and walls withstood a siege lasting four days in 1080. 43 It was a tribute to the strength of the defences as much as anything that only an alliance between the earl of Northumbria, the bishop and many local gentry managed to unseat Cumin from Durham castle. Enemy forces always found it easier and safer to by-pass Durham castle, as the Scots did in 1136 and 1138.

S y m e o n , HistEcclesDun, Continuatio Prima, p . 1 5 9 ; S y m e o n , HistEcclesDun, Continuatio Altera, p . 164. 22 The growth and development of Durham to c. 1250 developments, confined to the peninsula area. The site which had been cleared by Uchtred's levies was to accommodate religious buildings as well as fortifications, and the construction of the two went hand-in-hand. 45 Symeon is again the only documentary source for these developments, but given that his main purpose in writing was to narrate the history of the church at Durham, perhaps fewer doubts should be raised over these references.

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