Leonardo's Foot: How 10 Toes, 52 Bones, and 66 Muscles by Carol Ann Rinzler

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By Carol Ann Rinzler

Leonardo’s Foot stretches again to the fossil list and ahead to fresh discoveries in evolutionary technological know-how to illustrate that it used to be our toes instead of our brains that first unique us from different species in the animal nation. Taking concept from Leonardo da Vinci’s assertion that "the human foot is a masterpiece of engineering and a piece of art," Carol Ann Rinzler leads us on a desirable walk via technological know-how, medication, and tradition to make clear the position our toes have performed within the evolution of civilization.

Whether discussing the suitable human shape in classical antiquity, the outstanding intensity of the arching soles at the figures in Sandro Botticelli’s beginning of Venus, an array of foot maladies and the way they've got affected luminaries from Lord Byron to Benjamin Franklin, or delving into the heritage of foot fetishism, Rinzler has created a superbly different catalog of info on our lowest extremities. this can be well known technological know-how writing at its so much entertaining—page after web page of interesting proof, dependent round the playful idea that appreciating this usually missed a part of our physique is vital to figuring out what it's to be human.

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A closer examination of these religious rites will further elucidate the depth of these persistent ideas. 3 Families remember their departed members at the Buddhist altar in the home. 30 Understanding Japanese society THE RELIGIOUS CHARTER Within a house, the charter for the continuity of the ie takes the form of a Buddhist altar, or butsudan, where the memory of the ancestors is preserved. When a member of the house dies, a tablet is made bearing the posthumous name given to him or her by the Buddhist priest who performs the funeral, and this is kept in the altar.

Every family was by law expected to be registered with a local Buddhist temple, which also kept a record of deaths as they occurred. It was during this period that the Samurai ethic became a conscious ‘way’ of life, and, despite the lack of contact with China, Confucianism was again drawn upon to support the carefully regulated, hierarchical system which they guarded. This period was for two centuries stable and relatively peaceful. In the middle of the nineteenth century, however, when Western ships began to press for access to Japanese ports, the strict social order had already begun to break down.

Kinoshita lived in the community with his family, participated in all its activities, daily, seasonal and special, and became a wellknown figure to the management and local residents alike. They shared with him as they experienced them the trials and tribulations of creating community life from scratch, and he was able to follow up particular issues over a continuing period to see how they would 34 Understanding Japanese society develop and resolve themselves. The results are laid out in comparison with experiences reported elsewhere, and they are placed in the context of the overall Japanese facilities available for this section of society, as well as of studies carried out in other parts of the world.

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