By R. Halmshaw
This moment version builds at the luck of the 1st and covers the frequent creation of machine expertise, really the digitisation of information into the numerous branches of NDT. It surveys the hot ecu (CEN) criteria and provisional CEN criteria on NDT, a lot of that are changing British criteria. New NDT ideas now not incorporated within the first version also are incorporated
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Additional info for Introduction to the Non-Destructive Testing of Welded Joints
And the methods of calculating percentage sensitivities are more complex. It is important to realise that 2% sensitivity (or any other value) using a wire type IQI is not the same standard as 2% on a stephole type or on an American plaque type. Also with one type of IQI 2% may represent a very good radiograph; with another, 2% sensitivity may be a relatively poor quality radiograph. The fourth type of IQI (prEN-462-5; BS 3971:1985; type IIIA) is entirely different. It consists of pairs of wires of very dense metal, each pair of wires being separated by a space equal to the wire diameter.
However, the radiation used must be able to penetrate two wall thicknesses in order to obtain a radiograph of the weld in one wall, which means that the X-ray kilovoltage must be higher and the flaw sensitivity is poorer than with single wall techniques. The source may be close to the pipe or spaced away (as shown in Fig. 22) according to the calculated requirements of the minimum sfd. Figure 23 shows a pipeline weld being examined with an external gamma-ray source using this technique. Radiographic methods 23 39 Examination of a pipeline weld with an external gamma-ray source using the double walllsingle image technique.
The granular or mottled nature of the image can obscure fine detail in the image, and it is generally assumed that the slower radiographic films, which are often described as ‘fine grain’ or ‘very fine grain’, are capable of resolving smaller image detail than the faster coarser grain films, and so are to be preferred for high quality radiography. Radiographic methods 25 Film processing Conventional film processing is done by having the film in a channel hanger or a clip frame. which suspends the film vertically in a tank of developer, etc.