By James A Fay
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Additional info for Introduction to fluid mechanics
1 The strength and di recti on of the grav i t y force is conveniently given by the product of the parti cle mass ti mes the local acceleration of grav ity g. The other possible body forces ac ting on fluids are the elec trostati c force betw ee n elec tr ically charged fluid parti cles and surrounding charged fluid or solids and the electromagne tic force induced by a fluid pa rticl e conducting electric current in the presence of a ma gne tic field. The treatment of fluids subject to these forces is c alled electrohydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics.
But this information alone is insufficient to explain how the properties of a gas change as it moves. In addition. the laws of thermodynamics. 9, must be invoked. Compressible flows are inherently complicated because the laws of thermodynamics as well as the laws of flu id mechanics, operate simultaneously. , The perfect gas constant R is related to the Universal gas constant 'R, and the gas molecular weightS M by: ( 1 . 1 2) For a perfect gas, the internal energy e, the enthalpy h and the specific heats, cp and cv, are functions of the absolute temperature T alone and do not depend upon pressure or density.
Both the unit of force, the pound force (lbf), and the unit of mass, the pound mass (Ibm), as well as the units of length thefoot (ft), and time, the second (s), are considered as fundamental units. The pound force is defined as equal to the force of gravity acting on a pound mass under standard conditions of gravitationill acceleration (32. 1 74ft/s2). As a consequence, Newton's , law of motion contains a constant of proportionality: Fi. 174Ibmft/lbf,2 Thus a one pound force applied to a one pound mass will cause an accelereation of 32.