Introduction to Avestan by Javier Martínez & Michiel de Vaan

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By Javier Martínez & Michiel de Vaan

This advent to Avestan presents a concise grammar of the Avestan language, the language of the fans of the Iranian prophet Zarathustra. The grammar specializes in spelling, phonology and morphology, but additionally incorporates a bankruptcy on syntax. considerable details at the old improvement of the language is incorporated, which renders the grammar very worthy for college students of Indo-Iranian and Indo-European. additionally, a small variety of chosen Avestan texts is further, with a whole word list, in order that scholars can coaching analyzing Avestan.

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Auui (also written aoui and aoi) and aiβi ‘to, towards’ alongside OAv. aibī, Skt. abhí; YAv. uiie (< *uu̯ ai̯ < *uβai̯) alongside OAv. ind. ; gəuruuaiia- (to grab ‘seize’), Skt. gr̥bhāyá-, versus YAv. gərəβnāiti or OAv. ); cf. pl. pl. forms such as nəruiiō (to nar-), OAv. nərəbiiō, Skt. nr̥b́ hyas; YAv. aṣǎ uuaoiiō, OAv. aṣǎ uuabiiō (to aṣǎ uuan-). Careful examination of this phenomenon allows for the establishment of a relative chronology: the development -β- > -u- took place in YAv. before i-epenthesis took place (thus auui and not †aiuui), but after the IIr.

F is IIr. *bh in the word nāfa- ‘navel’, cf. the gathicism in YAv. , the closest with respect to the navel]’, Skt. nā ́bhā-nédiṣṭha-. 19 Sibilants: s, z, š, š,̣ š,́ ž The PIE sibilant *s, in the course of its history going into Avestan, has undergone various changes, which, in some cases, have profoundly altered its nature. ), other sibilants that have been created later are added. A list of the Avestan sibilants with indications of their possible origins is given below. 20. Av. s arises from various sources.

11 above), Skt. bhaktá-; Av. haxman-, Skt. sakman-, from PIE *seku̯ ‘follow’. The same root may serve to demonstrate the development of Ir. *x from ́ Skt. sg. the sequence *kH / *ku̯ H: YAv. sg. haše), u̯ sákhye) < PIE *sek h2-oi̯; cf. Lat. socius as well. Some cases of non-etymological x, which have sporadically developed before š-, may be noted: xšn- < *šn-: Av. xšnā- ‘know’, OP xšnā, Skt. jñā < IIr. *j́n- < PIE *ǵn-; xšuuaš ‘six’, Skt. ṣáṭ. On x́ and xv, cf. 30, resp. 17. 1. Av. θ comes from Ir.

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