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Extra resources for Incomes from the Forest: Methods for the Development and Conservation of Forest Products for Local Communities
As alternative uses of labour become more attractive, utilisation of the forest is increasingly concentrated on highervalue NTFPs. In another influential model based on Brazilian experience, Homma (1992, 1996) postulates that as commercial demand for a forest product emerges, output first expands then, as quantities and quality from wild sources decline, prices will rise. Inelasticities of the supply of naturally occurring products then lead to development of domesticated sources and synthetic alternatives that replace the natural source.
Instead they turn to income from labour-intensive, low-return, typically household-based activities such as collecting and mat making. In situations where per capita incomes are rising, such low-return, labour-intensive activities tend to give way to more productive and remunerative activities such as vending, trading and activities to meet growing and diversifying rural demands. At that stage, involvement in NTFPs increasingly shifts from a part-time activity by very large numbers of people to more specialised year-round operations, and from household to workshop scale, and from rural to small settlement and urban locations (Haggblade and Liedholm 1991).
Current issues in non-timber forest products research, 219-41. CIFOR-ODA, Bogor, Indonesia. Olsson, G. 1991. Forests and forest product use in Vanuatu and Tonga. Working Paper 2, RAS/86/036. South Pacific Forestry Development Programme, FAO/ UNDP, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Padoch, C. 1992. Marketing of non-timber forest products in Western Amazonia: general observations and research priorities. C. and Schwartzman, S. ) Non-timber products from tropical forests: evaluation of a conservation and development strategy.