By John Haiman
There isn't any nation on the earth the place as many various languages are spoken as in New Guinea, nearly a 5th of the languages on the planet. each one of these so-called Papuan languages appear to be unrelated to languages spoken somewhere else. the current paintings is the 1st really accomplished examine of this sort of language, Hua. the executive typological peculiarity of Hua is the life of a ‘medial verb’construction used to conjoin clauses in compound and complicated sentences. Hua additionally indicates a basic morphological contrast among coordinate and subordinate medial clauses, the latter aren't ‘tense-iconic’, the occasions they describe are usually not inevitably sooner than the development defined in later clauses. in addition their fact is often presupposed. The distribution and behavior of a post-nominal suffix - mo presents insights into the character of issues, conditional clauses, and practical definitions of the components of speech. In phonology, the valuable ideas of assimilation are limited through the common hierarchy of sonority, which could, even if, be derived from binary gains. those are many of the components during which the grammar of Hua is strangely perspicuous. the current paintings goals at a regular of completeness such that it'd be an invaluable reference paintings for learn in virtually any theoretical subject.
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Extra info for Hua: A Papuan Language of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea
Examples of this pattern are furnished by Salt-Yui (Irwin 1971: 109, 111), and Wojokeso (West 1973: 10). The pattern distribution does not seem to correlate with any genetic grouping. A feature which is probably common to all medial verbs is that, from a morphological standpoint, they are all nominalizations. -C. languages which follow pattern one, above, the anticipatory desinence, which is invariably present in all medial verbs, is a personal pronoun, acting as the head of a Modifier + Head construction.
These and various other rules will be dealt with in section 2. Section 1 and 2 exhaustively treat all consonant contact phenom ena in Hua. 1 Rules of coalescence The archiphoneme K Word-internally, /g/ and /k/ contrast with each other in a number of environments. Morpheme-initially, they do not. Since the voicing of the velar stop after # (word boundaries) and + (prefix boundaries) is predictable by rule, underlying voice in these positions need not be specified, save for a handful of words. The archiphoneme /K/, occuring only morpheme-initially, is motiv ated by this predictability.
More tenuous evidence of the same alternation is to be found in the verbal paradigms of two major languages of the West-Central family, Enga and Kewa. In Enga, the post-verbal auxiliaries which mark tense are characterized by having back vowels in the first person of the dual and the plural, and front vowels in the 2/3 person dual and plural forms: xxxv INTRODUCTION Far past Near past Past Present Future dl. amba ambi pumba pimbi lambano lambino lyambano lyambino tamba tambi pl. ama ami puma pimi lamano lamino lyamano lyamino tama tami (Source: Adrienne Lang 1971: 29-58.