By Kazuharu Mizuno, Lobsang Tenpa
This is the 1st e-book to systematically describe the formation and old adjustments of the Monpa people’s region (Monyul) via its nature, society, tradition, faith, agriculture and traditionally deep ties with Bhutan, Tibet and the Tibetan Buddhist religion. The nation of Arunachal Pradesh is found within the northeastern a part of India, surrounded by means of the borders of Assam, Bhutan, and Tibet (China). there was an extended heritage of clash over the sovereignty of this sector among India and China. Foreigners have been prohibited from getting into the country until eventually the Nineteen Nineties and the realm has been veiled in secrecy till lately. therefore, there aren't many academically researched works at the zone. This ebook serves as a necessary advisor for someone who wish to find out about a special geographical quarter of Monpa.
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Additional info for Himalayan Nature and Tibetan Buddhist Culture in Arunachal Pradesh, India: A Study of Monpa
The Tawang area still provides religious tribute to Tawang Monastery) dzongpon of Gyangkhar Dzong was jointly appointed by the Tsona dzongpon and officials of Tawang Monastery. According to several British sources, both Tsona Dzong and Gyangkhar Dzong were used by the Tsona dzongpon as summer and winter residences (Chakravarty 1953), respectively, but this is not supported by Tibetan sources (Ye shes ’phrin las 1983). The dzongpon of Tsona Dzong commissioned Tawang Monastery to collect tax from the areas of the Dirang and Kalaktang.
Six cows and 12 sheep were collected as tax from the village of Chug, 8 cows and 30 sheep from the village of Lish, 6 cows and 10 sheep from Nyukmadung and Senge Dzong, 7 cows from Sangti, and 15 cows and 30 sheep from Dirang and Yewang [yid dbang]. The taxation on Dirang and Yewang was later abolished, probably in the nineteenth century as compensation for the Bapu’s murder of villagers. Japanese pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum), known locally as khagei [kha ’gas] (Fig. 3 Types of tax collected by the bapu [sba bu] from their territory 1 2 3 Old area name Magthing Luksum (dmag sgo thing bu lug dgu thang) (Present Tawang area: Mago, Thingbu and Lugthuang) Drangnang Tshodruk (brang nang tsho drung) (Present Sela to Boot Monpa village Khoina) Collecting tax Pungur: Baitang (Silver coin), Jhalane (Chese and Butter), Tshapa (Yak) Sheep, Cow Chug: cow 6, sheep 12, Lish: cow 8, sheep 30 Senge Dzong & Nyukmadung: cow 6, sheep 10, Sangti: cow 7 Dirang & Yaweng: cow 15, sheep 30* Khagei, Chongleywha (Holy scarf) Phudung Thongtse (phugdung mthong rtse) (Present Mandala Phudung) 4 Lego Geydar (las sgo rgyas dar) Rice, Cloth, Raw silk, Cotton threads etc.
When transporting the fabric from Assam to the Monpa area, the traders had to pay the road tariff at Taklung Dzong. From the silk fabric brought to their villages, the Monpa people produced the following materials: shingka or shinka, a one-piece dress for women; toedung [stod ’thung], a jacket worn over the shingka; and ahlung, white plain silk fabric. Ahlung was used to produce dorna [dor na], the trousers worn by Monpa men, and the shirts worn by both women and men. According to Wakita (2009), fabrics for the Monpa’s shingka and toedung were produced mainly in eastern Bhutan and Assam.