By James Torrance
A textual content written in particular for college students following the revised syllabus for biology at SCE greater Grade. Emphasis is put on problem-solving questions.
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J. & M. J. Holden, 1991. Multispecies management: a manager’s point of view. ICES Marine Science Symposia 193: 353–358. Caddy, J. F. & G. D. Sharp, 1986. An ecological framework for marine ﬁshery investigations. FAO Fisheries Technical Papers 283: 1–152. , S. De Ranieri & P. Martin, 1997. Discards of the western Mediterranean trawl ﬂeets. EU Contract n. DG XIV- Med 94/027 Final report. 29 Choy, S. , 1988. Reproductive biology of Liocarcinus puber and L. holsatus (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae) from the Gower peninsula, South Wales.
This allows only restricted space to accommodate the increase in size of the ripening ovary. All of the studies cited above relate to free living crabs. These have a heavily calciﬁed and inelastic integument enclosing the cephalothorax, and the ovaries are restricted to the cephalothoracic cavity. However, in certain commensal crabs much higher values have been determined (Table 2). Two pinnotherid crabs commensal in bivalves, Pinnotheres ostreum Say and Fabia subquadrata Dana, had values of 66 and 97%, respectively (Hines, 1992).
Ecology and evolution of mating systems of ﬁddler crabs (genus Uca). Biological Reviews 59: 483–509. Ens, B. , Klaasen & L. Zwarts, 1993. Flocking and feeding in the ﬁddler crab (Uca tangeri): prey availability as risk-taking behaviour. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 31: 477–494. Hartnoll, R. , 1965. The biology of spider crabs: a comparison of British and Jamaican species. Crustaceana 9: 1–16. Hartnoll, R. , 1968. Reproduction of the burrowing crab Corystes cassivelaunus (Pennant, 1777) (Decapoda, Brachyura).