By Robert I. King
The most up-to-date info shows that the U.S. now spends in way over $150 billion every year to accomplish its steel elimination initiatives utilizing traditional machining know-how. That estimate is elevated from $115 billion five years in the past. It turns into transparent that steel removing know-how is an important candidate for rigorous research taking a look towards development of productiveness in the production method. to assist in that exercise, an intensive software of study has constructed in the business group with the specific goal of determine ing a brand new medical and utilized base that may offer rules upon which new production judgements might be made. one of many steel removing recommendations that has the opportunity of nice monetary benefits is high-rate steel elimination with comparable tech nologies. this article is worried with the sector of grinding as a subset of the final box of high-rate steel removing. similar methods (not cov ered during this textual content) contain such subject matters as turning, drilling, and milling. within the ultimate assessment, the proper selection within the choice of a grind ing procedure needs to unavoidably comprise an realizing of the opposite tools of steel removing. The time period grinding, as used herein, comprises sprucing, buffing, lapping, and honing in addition to traditional defini tion: " . . . elimination both steel or different fabrics via a high-quality grinding wheel.
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Additional info for Handbook of Modern Grinding Technology
53A120K8V127 52100 Rc60 De =11,4 INCH SYMBOL -z 2 A B .... p, ~ (a) ~ z ~ ~ " :J: '-J' ..... a: w B o B ~ ~O'/ 3: o a.. /' ... ~~ ,A'" of) \ J / O 'O ~ N 'A o \2 Fig. 2 z 52100 6000FPM "JO~\tY : a ) ~/ ~'iD ~"/ c/C Fig. 13 " 0.. :I: '--' o a. '" :\ "COO FN' Z - 20 3 c 100 - 0:: W 10 c O. 6 150 (LSI IN) I I 2 Zw (Iwl MIN,IN) Wheelspeed effects: external grinding Fig. 13 shows similar data for external grinding. /inch. 39 vs. 3 hp/inch3 per minute. 6 hp/inch. So, as in Fig. 970 (where the two lines intersect), the highspeed system will require higher power.
3 The system characteristic chart 34 Handbook of Modern Grinding Technology lb/inch force, there was no metal removal rate, but after that Z~ was linear with normal force. The 20 lb/inch is labeled F;h the threshold force, because it was the force threshold that had to be overcome to cause metal removal. The slope of the Z~ vs. 014 inch 3 minute, lb. The magnitude, or "steepness," of that line is important because it defines how "sharp" the system is cutting. A steep slope means fast-cutting ("free-cutting") and low forces; a shallow slope means slow-cutting ("hard-acting") and high forces.
5%. 23a (for 12000 fpm) shows equivalent WRP slopes. 6% here) using the soluble oil. So, in 3 cases, there were substantial reductions in power requirements using higher-quality fluids. Users fighting surface integrity requirements (metallurgical damage or residual stresses) should be aware that anything that reduces forces and power in grinding will help them. Higher-quality, and probably more expensive fluids can reduce forces and power. The Work Removal Parameter Equation As part of the author's doctoral thesisS an equation was developed predicting the work removal parameter, WRP, using all the factors for a particular grinding system.