Handbook of Amazonian Languages by Desmond C. Derbyshire

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By Desmond C. Derbyshire

The fourth quantity in a chain at the languages of Amazonia. This quantity comprises grammatical descriptions of Wai Wai, Warekena, a comparative survey of morphosyntactic positive aspects of the Tupi-Guarani languages, and a paper on interclausal reference phenomena in Amahuaca.

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3 Ellipsis There can be omission of both verbal and nonverbal constituents and also of the main clause. In these cases, the omitted constituent is recoverable from either the linguistic or nonlinguistic context. There is ellipsis of the noun head with classifier pronouns (sect. 1) and with some adjectives (sect. 3). 1 Omission of the subject The omission of the subject is common in transitive and ditransitive clauses. ' -ma -CMPL asö toto -ko -ma CLASS give -FOC -CMPL Usually, if the subject omitted is plural, this is shown by the presence of -he or -e verb final when the completive -ma occurs or when there is no aspect marker.

In this type of clause, negative existence is indicated by ma 'not to be'. (See the descriptive verb mi 'none' in (35), and discussion of the distinctions between ma and mi in sect. ' In age-oriented existence clauses there is an obligatory referent constitutent marked by niha/ha which is restricted to cases in which the subject indicates an expanse of time in terms of 'nights, moons, and dry seasons'. (For a fuller discussion of the markers and their uses see sect. 3 Position clauses. Position clauses contrast with existence clauses in that in the former there may occur a superordinate participant agent or an inanimate instrument marked by -no.

See sect. ) Transitive clauses differ from ditransitive in that they do not have an obligatory referent as goal, which is present in the ditransitive clauses. Transitive clauses are divided into experience and operation clauses. 1 Experience clauses. Experience clauses describe an emotional or perceptional experience on the part of the participant. In these clauses the object is unaffected in that there is no physical contact or change that takes place in the object as a result of the activity.

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