Grammatical voice by M. H. Klaiman

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By M. H. Klaiman

Different types of the verb in traditional languages comprise demanding, element, modality (mood) and voice. between those, voice, in its wealthy and numerous manifestations, may be the main advanced. yet so much past study concentrates on simply specific sorts, predominantly passives. Voice expresses kin among a predicate and a collection of nominal positions - or their referents - in a clause or different constitution. Grammatical Voice is the 1st typological examine of voice structures in accordance with a multi-language survey. It introduces a threefold category of voice forms, within the first position distinguishing passivization phenomena (derived voice) from active-middle platforms (basic voice); and additional, distinguishing each one of those from pragmatically grounded voice behaviours, reminiscent of concentration and inverse platforms. because the first entire research of voice structures and voice typology, this booklet makes an important contribution to present study in linguistics and grammatical concept.

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This involves taking the intersection of what he terms the "lexical entailments" of particular positions in the argument frames of verbs. For instance, there is an assumed correspondence between the "builder" position in the argument frame of the verb "build" and some position in the argument frames of other verbs such as "bake," "sculpt," and so forth. Further, it is assumed that certain properties devolve upon core nominals by virtue of their occupying a common position in the argument frames of various verbs.

Nan atim (25) a. Ni- sekih -a 1 scare theme DIRECT 1 PL dog 'We scare the dog' -nan atim b. Ni- sekih -iko 1 scare theme INVERSE 1 PL dog 'The dog scares us' In Algonquian linguistics, the alternation illustrated in (25) is tradi­ tionally termed direct/inverse. 4 Voice as marker ofpragmatic salience assignment 33 not only of the Algonquian family, but are also ascribed to some Wakashan languages such as Nootkan (Whistler 1 985) as well as to Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages of Siberia (Comrie 1 980, 1 981 a: 1 1 5) .

1 ) , the characteristic voice altern ation , as Lyon s 1 968: 373 poin ts out, isn ot active/passive. On ly in two In do-European stocks does a specific formal passive occur (In do­ Iran ian an d Hellen ic) . Rather, the characteristic In do-E uropean voice 24 The study of voice altern ation is active/middle. Accordin g to Lyon s, "The impli cation s of the middle (when it is in opposition with the active) are that the 'action ' or 'state' affects the subject of the verb or his in terests. " The In do-European active/middle altern ation can be illustrated with the Classical San skrit examples (1 2a, b) .

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