Fundamental mathematics and physics of medical imaging by Jack Lancaster, Bruce Hasegawa

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By Jack Lancaster, Bruce Hasegawa

Authored by means of a number one educator, this publication teaches the basic arithmetic and physics suggestions linked to scientific imaging platforms. Going past mere description of imaging modalities, this booklet delves into the mechanisms of picture formation and snapshot caliber universal to all imaging structures: distinction mechanisms, noise, and spatial and temporal solution, making it an enormous reference for clinical physicists and biomedical engineering scholars. this can be an broadly revised re-creation of The Physics of scientific X-Ray Imaging by means of Bruce Hasegawa (Medical Physics Publishing, 1991), and encompasses a wide variety of modalities reminiscent of X-ray CT, MRI and SPECT.

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3). 1 Digital Position The digital image is discrete with respect to position. 2). ” The pixel is the smallest unit in a planar image and its size in 31 32 ◾ Fundmental Mathematics and Physics of Medical Imaging VCR Video monitor Register Video image signal Low-pass antialiasing filter Video camera Camera aperture Image intensifier ADC Analog image signal Image memory DAC Log LUT Register Video monitor Image memory Digital image data Patient X-ray Digital magnetic tape Digital magnetic disk CD, DVD, etc.

However, the image of a point object is always blurred by the imaging system. 2d). In Chapter 6, we describe how the PSF of an imaging system can be determined experimentally and describe additional approaches to characterize an imaging system’s spatial resolution. 2 Image Contrast Image contrast is broadly defined as the difference between adjacent regions in an image. In medical images, contrast refers to differences between neighboring tissues. For x-ray imaging, contrast between bone and soft tissue is high and contrast between fat and 6 ◾ Fundmental Mathematics and Physics of Medical Imaging muscle is low.

3 Image contrast. (a) Schematic of x-ray image acquisition for a low-contrast phantom (plastic disk), (b) developed x-ray image, and (c) graph of relative exposure levels for phantom and background. 1) X1 This contrast is unitless and can be positive or negative, though we often ignore the sign since it is understood from the context of the measurement. 3b). This contrast reversal is a property of x-ray films that produce negative images. We will discuss factors contributing to image contrast more thoroughly in Chapter 4.

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