Foundations for a Scientific Analysis of Value by Victor Kraft (auth.), Henk L. Mulder (eds.)

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By Victor Kraft (auth.), Henk L. Mulder (eds.)

In English-speaking international locations Victor Kraft is understood mostly for his account of the Vienna Circle. ! That crew of thinkers has exercised in contemporary many years an important effect not just at the philosophy of the western international, but additionally, not less than ultimately, on that of the East, the place there's now happening a sluggish yet basically impossible to resist erosion of dogmatic Marxism through methods of imagine­ ing derived from a modem medical belief of the realm. Kraft's paintings as historian of the Vienna Circle has ended in his being classed, with no additional qua1ification, as a neo-positivist thinker. it really is, besides the fact that, in simple terms partly right to count number him as such. to make sure, he belonged to the gang named, he took half in its conferences, and he drew from it feedback significant to his personal paintings; yet he didn't belong to the challenging middle of the Circle and was once a con­ scious opponent of definite radical trends espoused, no less than every now and then, via a few of its participants. facts of this can be supplied by means of the speculation of worth now offered in English translation, given that no much less a philosopher than Rudolf Carnap had, initially at any price, obeyed a really narrowly conceived criterion of experience and declared worth decisions to be senseless.

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He is helped in this by linguistic coinages current among the adults about him. For concepts supply the meaning of verbal designations. , symbolized by means of them. If we observe the fIrst explicit valuations made by children, it immediately becomes evident that the understanding of the valuation is connected with the pleasant or unpleasant coloring attaching to an object. A food is called 'good' or 'bad' depending on whether it tastes good or not; likewise, smells are 'good' or 'bad', 'nice' or 'nasty', depending on whether they are pleasant or unpleasant to the child.

Only when the decisive factors are known is it possible to reconstruct an experiment over and over again, as is required for 24 CHAPTER III verifiability; only then are its results capable of unambiguous interpretation. The total situation - the conception of the stimulus word giving rise to emotions and, subsequently, to a valuation - is far too complex to reveal unambiguously the role of emotion in the forming of evaluations. Therefore experiments involving the more complex phenomena must be preceded by analytic study.

It is only that the two aspects of this phenomenon are appealed to separately, now the one, now the 30 CHAPTER III other. Traditionally, the psychology of value has constructed two 'value theories', one dealing with the emotions, the other with the will (cf. chap. 1,1), and later psychologists have followed this model. Gruehn sees the essence of an original, a new, evaluation in acceptance or rejection, that is, in the element of endeavor involved in adopting the attitude. 15 On the other hand, SHlrring, who even speaks of an 'emotional attitude' as the basis of evaluation, '6 emphasizes the emotional components.

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