By John G. Yates, Paola Lettieri
The fluidized-bed reactor is the center piece of commercial fluidization tactics. This publication makes a speciality of the layout and operation of fluidized beds in lots of varied commercial tactics, emphasizing the reason for selecting fluidized beds for every specific method. The ebook begins with a quick historical past of fluidization from its inception within the 1940’s. The authors current either the fluid dynamics of gas-solid fluidized beds and the wide experimental reports of working structures and so they set them within the context of working techniques that use fluid-bed reactors.
Chemical engineering scholars and postdocs in addition to practising engineers will locate nice curiosity during this publication.
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Extra resources for Fluidized-Bed Reactors: Processes and Operating Conditions
It is produced almost exclusively by a fluidized-bed process invented in the late 1950’s by the Sohio company (Idol 1959). The process was designated a National Historic Landmark by the American Chemical Society in 1996. 2 Sohio Process This so-called ammoxidation process involves the reaction between propylene, ammonia and oxygen (air) over a solid catalyst: CH2 ¼ CHCH3 þ NH3 þ 3=2O2 ¼ CH2 ¼ CHCN þ 3H2 O; DH ¼ À515 kJ=mol In addition, side reactions occur leading to the formation of HCN, acetonitrile, acrolein and oxides of carbon as a result of which the overall enthalpy of reaction is in the region of 670–730 kJ/mol (Kunii and Levenspiel 1991).
In the regeneration stage the depleted surface oxygen sites are replaced by oxygen from the air. The kinetic parameters determined by Mills et al. (1999) were applied by Roy et al. (2000) in modelling the riser reactor of the DuPont CFB process (see below). 3 Mitsubishi Process A commercial plant with a nameplate capacity of 18,000 t/a of maleic anhydride was put into operation in 1970. A schematic flow diagram of the process is shown in Fig. 2 (Contractor and Sleight 1987) and an outline of the reactor in Fig.
16 1 Introduction Fig. 4 Dynamic and kinematic wave velocities as functions of void fraction for the fluidization of alumina particles by air (ρp = 1000 kg/m3; dp = 150 and 70 µm; Gibilaro 2001) Fig. 5 Boundary predictions of the particle-bed model: heavy lines empirical boundaries due to Geldart (1973); broken lines model predictions (Gibilaro 2001) Downer reactors One of the disadvantages of the riser reactors referred to in Sect. 1 is that the core-annular structure of their flow pattern results in axial back-mixing of the solid particles giving them a broad residence time distribution.