By Robert Allan Leishear
For a few, using the time period "water hammer" conjures up photographs of damaged and bent piping, multi-million greenback damages, the lack of water offers to towns, and the deaths of people because of water hammer injuries. Water hammer can be outlined as an severe fluid temporary, sometimes well-known via loud banging, or hammering sounds, occasionally linked to fluid transients, that are as a result of stream fee adjustments and resultant strain surges, the place the phrases fluid brief and water hammer are usually used interchangeably. the first objective of this article is to supply practising engineers with the analytical instruments required to spot water hammer issues and forestall gear harm, group of workers harm, and fatalities. to take action, the rules of pipe method layout with recognize to fluid mechanics, valves, and pump operations are by means of simple structural piping layout ideas, water hammer idea, pipe procedure dynamics, and failure research. this article is meant for working towards engineers within the strength and procedure piping parts who're all in favour of the layout, functionality, and security of piping apparatus and elements; particularly the id, threat review, and prevention of water hammers in water, liquid, and steam piping structures. suitable industries contain strength businesses and utilities, strain expertise, valve and pipe brands, and petro/chemical processing amenities. total, the textual content integrates a number of structural and fluids engineering disciplines to demonstrate the rules of troubleshooting pipe structures for fluid move difficulties and pipe disasters
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Additional info for Fluid mechanics, water hammer, dynamic stresses, and piping design
12. Fig. 13 provide more detailed data on water, where the specific gravity of water varies slightly depending on the reference temperature. Additional density data on petroleum products is available in the work of Crane , and both Reid  and Perry  provide techniques for estimating unknown densities for many fluids. 14). 6 Aluminum tube (ASTM B429/B 429M-06 , reprinted with permission of ASTM International, 100 Bar Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, Pa, 19428) in Fig. 19, and details of viscosity for water and steam are shown in Fig.
Pipe. 177 psi pressure drop per 100 ft of 2-in. pipe. 1 gpm. The error due to neglecting the fittings is minor for this case of a few fitting losses on a long pipeline (<1%). The reader is strongly referred to Crane  for several detailed examples of flow rate calculations. 9 Flow and Friction Losses in Parallel Pipes Both flow rates and friction losses are required to describe flow in parallel pipes. For a constant density fluid, the volumetric flow rate obtained from Fig. 67) 1 1 + hL4 + h L2 h L5 +h L3 Fig.
22) Þ u(centistokes) = SpG A common instrument used to measure viscosity in the US is the Saybolt universal viscometer, which is essentially a calibrated orifice and tube. The time required for a gravity flow of 60 cc through the orifice is measured in Saybolt Fig. 11 Types of Fluids 14 • Chapter 2 Fig. 12 Schematic of a flat plate viscometer universal seconds, SSU. 24) Having defined viscosity, different types of fluids may be considered. 2 Properties of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids Fluid properties for the various fluids shown in Fig.