Evolutionary Developmental Biology of the Cerebral Cortex. by Novartis Foundation

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Additional resources for Evolutionary Developmental Biology of the Cerebral Cortex. No. 228

Sample text

Which genes are involved? In order to provide a working model of cortical expansion, I will ¢rst describe early developmental events, such as the mode of cell production, pattern of neuronal migration, and emergence of laminar and modular organization in the cerebral cortex, including the timing of these events in mouse, macaque monkey and human. After that, I will propose a model of how genes that control the mode of cell proliferation and cell death at a critical stage of development can account for the changes in size of the cortex during evolution.

In: Evolutionary developmental biology of the cerebral cortex. Wiley, Chichester (Novartis Found Symp 228) p 1^14 DISCUSSION Wolpert: When you knocked out the caspase, you observed almost a doubling of cortical size. This means that half of the stem cells should undergo cell death, but this did not seem to be the case from your TUNEL stain results. Rakic: The surface of the cortex in the mutants is visibly larger, but it is not double the size. Furthermore, the sections stained with the TUNEL method that you refer to in your question, illustrates the cerebral wall at the late stage of corticogenesis, when neurons destined for the cortex are being generated.

In contrast, we are discussing here founder cells, the progenitors that divide by symmetrical division before the onset of neurogenesis. Papalopulu: How do you know that the cells that are not dying are progenitor cells?

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