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The variety of antigen-binding constructions of antibody molecules is so big that each possible antigen might be certain through an antibody molecule in the immune approach. this is often actual even for the antigen binding websites of antibodies referred to as idiotypes, that are certain by means of complementary bind ing websites of different antibodies referred to as anti-idiotypes.
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Additional info for Evolutionary and Genetic Biology of Primates
ChSA might give a value of 80, RhSA a value of 40, CebSA a value of 25, and LemSA a value of 15. Rabbits and the Primates probably could find a common ancestor somewhere in the Cretaceous perhaps as recently as 75 million years 3 ago. Any likely common ancestor of man and birds, however, might be sought in the Permian, over 200 million years ago. Antibodies found in a chicken immunized against HSA would be expected to complement significantly more antigenic determinants than those formed by a rabbit.
They are integral to an understanding of what a cross-reaction is and what type of information it provides. The genetic, metabolic, or chemical mechanisms by which specificity is conferred upon the immune globulins in the antibody producer are still largely unknown. It is known, however, that an animal will not normally produce an antibody capable of combining with a substance in its own body, at least not a substance such as a serum protein which the antibody is certain to encounter. Since the antibody producer is expected to have a protein homologue of the reference antigen, which it resembles in many features, any antibody formed may be specific only for dissimilar antigenic determinants.
See text for explanation. A FIG. diffusion methods have been most widely applied and there are numerous modifications devised for specific purposes. Double diffusion is usually carried out in horizontal layers of agar. Figure 4 illustrates the modification employed by Goodman (1962a) in his studies of the cross-reactions of primate antigens. Four hypothet ical antigen homologues ( Χ , Χ', Υ, Z) are compared for their reactivity with an antiserum prepared against antigen X (or some other R-Ag) and containing five antibodies (a, b, c, d, e) complementary for distinct antigenic determinant groups on X.