By Steven H. Voldman
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) failure mechanisms proceed to affect semiconductor elements and platforms as applied sciences scale from micro- to nano-electronics.
This booklet reviews electric overstress, ESD, and latchup from a failure research and case-study procedure. It offers a transparent perception into the physics of failure from a generalist standpoint, by means of research of failure mechanisms in particular applied sciences, circuits, and platforms. The e-book is exclusive in overlaying either the failure mechanism and the sensible ideas to mend the matter from both a know-how or circuit technique.
glance within for wide assurance on:
- failure research instruments, EOS and ESD failure assets and failure versions of semiconductor know-how, and the way to take advantage of failure research to layout extra strong semiconductor elements and structures;
- electro-thermal types and applied sciences; the state of the art applied sciences mentioned comprise CMOS, BiCMOS, silicon on insulator (SOI), bipolar expertise, excessive voltage CMOS (HVCMOS), RF CMOS, clever power, gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium nitride (GaN), magneto-resistive (MR) , mammoth magneto-resistors (GMR), tunneling magneto-resistor (TMR), units; micro electro-mechanical (MEM) structures, and photo-masks and reticles;
- practical tips on how to use failure research for the certainty of ESD circuit operation, temperature research, energy distribution, floor rule improvement, inner bus distribution, present course research, caliber metrics, (connecting the theoretical to the sensible analysis);
- the failure of every key section of a know-how from passives, energetic components to the circuit, sub-system to package deal, highlighted through case experiences of the weather, circuits and system-on-chip (SOC) in today’s products.
ESD: Failure Mechanisms and Models is a continuation of the author’s sequence of books on ESD defense. it truly is an important reference and an invaluable perception into the problems that confront glossy know-how as we input the Nano-electronic era.Content:
Chapter 1 Failure research and ESD (pages 1–29):
Chapter 2 Failure research instruments, types, and Physics of Failure (pages 31–76):
Chapter three CMOS Failure Mechanisms (pages 77–123):
Chapter four CMOS Circuits: Receivers and Off?Chip Drivers (pages 125–158):
Chapter five CMOS Integration (pages 159–193):
Chapter 6 SOI ESD Failure Mechanisms (pages 195–223):
Chapter 7 RF CMOS and ESD (pages 225–257):
Chapter eight Micro?Electromechanical structures (pages 259–285):
Chapter nine Gallium Arsenide (pages 287–314):
Chapter 10 shrewdpermanent energy, LDMOS, and BCD expertise (pages 315–332):
Chapter eleven Magnetic Recording (pages 333–360):
Chapter 12 Photo?Masks and Reticles: Failure Mechanisms (pages 361–377):
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Extra resources for ESD: Failure Mechanisms and Models
In the transition from solid to liquid or gaseous states, material can be removed leading to electrical failure. For example, metals can agglomerate, sputter, or be displaced. ” 18 FAILURE ANALYSIS AND ESD In micro-electronics, and nanostructures, ESD failure can occur in the bulk volume or at an interface. The properties in the bulk volume can be homogeneous or non-homogeneous. The interface region can be an interface of the same material or different materials. In a semiconductor material junctions can be homojunctions and heterojunctions; ESD failure can occur in both homojunctions and heterojunctions.
ESD failure mechanisms in inductive and magnetoresistive recording heads. Proceedings of the Electrostatic Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge (EOS/ESD) Symposium, 1995; 322–330. 24. S. Voldman, S. Luo, C. Nomura et al. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) recording heads with a silicon germanium technology. Proceedings of the Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge (EOS/ESD) Symposium, 2004; 361–370. REFERENCES 29 25. A. Wallash. ESD evaluation of tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) heads.
Topography maps can provide detailed analysis of ESD failures in MOSFET source, drain, and gate regions. 4 39 Atomic force microscope (AFM) regions of the device after ESD failure. 4 shows a high level diagram of an AFM tool. The AFM tool has a fine probe tip which is brought close to the sample to sense the topography, electrostatic potential, or capacitance coupling. The probe tip is scanned across the two-dimensional surface to provide a visual mapping of the region of interest. 5 is an example of an AFM image of a series cascode MOSFET after MOSFET second breakdown.