By Fernando Zúñiga
This publication proposes a concept of inverse that differs from common positions present in descriptive and typological stories (one of them restrictive and structure-oriented, the opposite wide and function-centered). This 3rd stance recommend right here takes either grammar and pragmatic services into consideration, however it additionally relates the competition among direct and inverse verbs and clauses to an competition among deictic values, thereby reaching positive targets: it meaningfully circumvents one of many ordinary analytic dilemmas, specifically even if a given building is passive or inverse, and it refines our realizing of the cross-linguistic typology of inversion. This framework is utilized to the outline of the morphosyntax of 11 Amerindian languages (Algonquian: Plains Cree, Miami-Illinois, Ojibwa; Kutenai; Sahaptian: Sahaptin, Nez Perce; Kiowa-Tanoan: Arizona Tewa, PicurÃs, Southern Tiwa, Kiowa; Mapudungun).
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Additional info for Deixis and Alignment: Inverse Systems in Indigenous Languages of the Americas
In Tariana, verbs cross-reference A’s regardless of transitivity by means of a prefix, and pronominal NPs in “nonsubject” function are marked by -na. 14 See Dixon (2000: 11f) for a terminological discussion of middles. 34 DEIXIS AND ALIGNMENT Passivization (i) intransitivizes a transitive predicate (which takes the simulfix ka-…-kana and is followed by an auxiliary that carries the personal inflection), (ii) promotes the original O to SA function, and (iii) demotes the original A to an optional oblique: (17) Tariana passive construction (Dixon & Aikhenvald 1997:92) wa-inu-mhade.
Cf. g. Seiler (1982, 2001) for this issue in Cahuilla. I. ALIGNMENT AND DIRECTION 21 found in the literature, including “substantival”, “animacy”, “empathy”, “egocentricity”, “agency”, “humanness”, “ontological salience” and “generic topicality”. Bickel & Nichols (forthcoming) have proposed the term “indexability” claiming that the other names do not capture all aspects of the hierarchy, whereas “its basic variable is the ease to which a referent can be identified―or ‘indexed’―from within the speech act situation”.
U-l Murad uc-ib=di 2s-ERG M. PFV-PRET=2s ‘yous caught Murad’ 2s→3s f. Murad u uc-ib=di M. PFV-PRET=2s ‘Murad caught yous’ 3s→2s g. du-l Murad 1s-ERG M. PFV-PRET=1 27 I. ALIGNMENT AND DIRECTION h. Murad du uc-ib=da M. PFV-PRET=1 ‘Murad caught me’ i. -ERG M. ‘Ali caught Murad’ uc-ib. 4 Alignment and direction: Related but different phenomena We have seen that the morphosyntax of a particular language may react in various ways to an indexability hierarchy, as shown in (14): (14) Reflexes to the indexability hierarchy a.