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Extra info for Data and Computer Communications, 7th Edition, Solutions Manual
8 Transmission, processing, and queuing delays. 25. 25 uses all in-channel control. 25. -46- 47 If a frame error is detected it is just dropped rather than being retransmitted. Similarly, on an end-to-end basis, there is no error control or flow control except what is provided by higher level protocols outside of frame relay. 25. 25, up to several megabits per second, can be supported. On the other hand, because of the lack of hop-by-hop flow control, the user of frame relay has fewer tools to manage network congestion.
Circuit Switching vs. Diagram Packet Switching Tc = End-to-End Delay, Circuit Switching Tc = S + N ¥ D + L/B Td = End-to-End Delay, Datagram Packet Switching È L ˘ Np = Number of packets = Í Í P - H ˙˙ Td = D1 + (N – 1)D 2 D1 = Time to Transmit and Deliver all packets through first hop D2 = Time to Deliver last packet through a hop D1 = Np(P/B) + D D2 = P/B + D T = (Np + N – 1)(P/B) + N x D T = Td S + L/B = (Np + N – 1)(P/B) Circuit Switching vs. Virtual Circuit Packet Switching TV = End-to-End Delay, Virtual Circuit Packet Switching TV = S + Td TC = TV L/B = (Np + N – 1)(P/B) Datagram vs.
Increasing the number of frames would decrease frame size (number of bits/frame). This would lower line efficiency, because the propagation time is unchanged but more acknowledgments would be needed. c. For a given message size, increasing the frame size decreases the number of frames. This is the reverse of (b). 2 Let L be the number of bits in a frame. 5 1 + 2a 1 + (160 L) L ≥ 160 Therefore, an efficiency of at least 50% requires a frame size of at least 160 bits. 3 a = = = 270 LR 10 3 106 a.