By Mark Bray
COUNTING the total fee
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Additional resources for Counting the full cost: parental and community financing of education in East Asia
Page viii The discussion is chiefly concerned with the primary and secondary levels. The main focus is on formal education, but it also includes out of-school supplementary tutoring, which in some societies is a major expenditure. Much of the focus is on financing in cash, but the study recognizes that demands may also be for materials and labor and that the full costs of education include the opportunity costs of forgone earnings. The work is based on information from four main sources. The first is the existing literature, not only on the nine countries on which the discussion focuses but also on other countries with comparable economic and social features.
Cover photograph by Curt Carnemark, The World Bank. Mark Bray, a professor at the Comparative Research Centre of the University of Hong Kong, is author of several books and many articles focusing on aspects of the economics and financing of education. His books include (with Steve Packer) Education in Small States: Concepts, Challenges, and Strategies (Pergamon Press) and (editor, with Kevin Lillis) Community Financing of Education: Issues and Policy Implications in Less Developed Countries (Pergamon Press).
Movie fee 22. Taking care of students' bicycle 23. Textbooks for next semester (half fee paid in advance) 24. Funds for teacher retirement 25. Tutoring fee were dwarfed by the sum of all the other fees. West adds (16) that some of the fees collected by the schools were not used by the schools but instead passed on to other units. In this respect the schools were acting as agents for other organizations. The involvement of the schools in collecting some of these fees, such as those for insurance and physical checkups, has aroused controversy.