By Lucien Breems, Johan Huijsing

*Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulation for A/D Conversion in Radio**Receivers* describes the layout and concept of continuous-time sigma-delta modulators for analog-to-digital conversion in radio receivers. The book's major concentration is on dynamic variety, linearity and tool potency points of sigma-delta modulators, that are vitally important specifications to be used in battery operated receivers like GSM telephones. a tremendous a part of the e-book bargains with the picture rejection functionality of quadrature sigma-delta modulators. it truly is proven that options like dynamic-element-matching and integration of a mixer with the sigma-delta modulator tremendously improve the functionality and performance. additionally, the authors give you the reader with a theoretical review of continuous-time sigma-delta modulation, together with non-ideal results, balance concerns and various filter out designs. The book's concluding chapters current chip realizations exhibiting sensible implementations of low-power and high-performance sigma-delta modulators for GSM and AM/FM radio applications.

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**Extra info for Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulation for A/D Conversion in Radio Receivers**

**Sample text**

3-27) there is no analytical expression which can solve this characteristic equation. 3-17). 3-17 shows that the poles which are starting from the origin, move directly into the right-half plane for any gain and any phase Hence, the linear model of a second-order modulator is unstable for any quantizer gain and phase. 3 Linear stability analysis Eq. 4). An example transfer function of such a second-order low-pass filter is given by The characteristic equation of the second-order system Fig. 3-15 now becomes The root locus plot of Fig.

Non-linearity introduces distortion components, which should be weaker than the minimum detectable signal power. Different definitions, specifying non-linearity of the system, are distinguished. These are harmonic distortion, spurious-free dynamic range, intermodulation distortion, intermodulation intercept point, crossmodulation distortion and signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio. Harmonic distortion (HDx) - ratio between signal power and power of distortion component at harmonic of signal frequency.

A more robust method of improving matching of waveforms, is the return-to-zero (RTZ) technique. 3-11b and is based on the principle of resetting each feedback pulse for a fraction of the sampling period. As a result, all pulses have a positive and a negative edge, which greatly reduces signal dependence of the mismatch. Now, any mismatch between the positive and negative pulses only affect the offset. If the RTZ interval has a duty-cycle the reference level of the feedback pulse should increase with the inverse factor in order to have the same charge.