By Gerrit J. Dimmendaal
While Africa as a typological region is frequently linked to huge verb morphology and verb serialization, this choice of experiences exhibits that there's super typological range on the clausal point. Verb serialization within the Khoisan region contrasts with wide case-marking in languages of northeastern Africa, which additionally use converbs and light-weight verb plus coverb structures. even supposing the categorial contrast among nouns and verbs is mostly transparent in African languages, a couple of them however offer elaborate analytical demanding situations during this appreciate. while a few languages are strongly head marking on the clausal point, others happen an attractive mix of replacement ideas for the coding of contributors. The research of data packaging, and similar matters equivalent to break up ergativity, Differential item Marking, and discourse-configurational homes additionally play a job in numerous contributions. the gathering comprises not just cutting edge analyses for the respective language households those languages belong to, but additionally fabric proper for the present debate in theoretical linguistics bearing on lexical specification as opposed to construction-based ways in the direction of argument constitution.
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Extra resources for Coding Participant Marking: Construction types in twelve African languages (Studies in Language Companion Series)
Inanimate is distinguished. In the following discussion I will use Dixon’s terminology (1994) to refer to the core participants intransitive subject, S, transitive subject, A, and transitive object, O. Xun is not an ergative language, it is helpful to differentiate between the intransitive subject and the transitive subject. There are certain syntactic constructions, such as serial verb constructions and suppletive verbs in which S and A behave differently. In order to be consistent, I will consequently use S, A and O, even if S and A are treated the same.
This parallels the situation found in Tima. In Asheninka, an Amerindian language spoken in Peru, an active (agentive) versus a stative (agentless) sense for a verbal event may be distinguished this way (Payne and Payne 2005). e. an agent in a transitive clause, whereas in the Objective it is treated, as the name already says, like the object of a transitive predication. This phenomenon is more widespread, of course, and usually referred to as a split-S or fluid-S system. (2) saik-ak-e-mi sit-perf-real-2 ‘you sat’ (Subjective) (3) pi-saik-ak-e 2-sit-perf-real ‘you sat’ (Objective) Aikhenvald (To appear) describes two types of transitive constructions in Paumarí, a language spoken in southern Amazonia, Brazil.
In an Av O Loc structure, with -ā mostly being optional (see (22)). The preposition kē shows a similar profile as -ā: When two locative participants are expressed, -ā encodes the first and kē the second. With regard to the behavior of the transitive suffix -ā, the coverb3 xāī- ‘come out’, used as V2, behaves like a full verb (see (29)). out-t outside place kē kū tcí gè kā-ndòà. ’ Further head marking devices are verbal derivations, such as causative and passive. ú-, which is of verbal origin.