C++ for Beginners...Masters by Ankit Asthana

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By Ankit Asthana

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3 Constants in C++ A constant is an expression whose value doesn’t change during program execution. A constant can be declared as an integer, floating point or character. Constants can be declared in C++ using any of the following procedures. One can define a constant identifier by using the ‘ #define’ preprocessor directive. It has the following syntax. 5. 0; circle_circumference=(2*PI*radius); // Calculating circumference cout<<" The circumference of the circle is "<

7e + / - 308 (15 digits) 8 64 It is used to store double precision floating point numbers. double The size acquired by a variable in the computer memory depends upon whether we are storing it as an integer, a character or a decimal. In other words, a variables size depends upon its data type. The computer memory is organized in the form of ‘bytes’. Each ‘byte’ is further a collection of even smaller units called ‘bits’. We will now discuss the fundamental data types available in C++. 1 Integer variables An integer variable exists in variable sizes.

Output is right justified by default. The default field width is just wide enough to hold the expression. The ‘setw’ operator overcomes this problem by allowing a fixed field width. 7 to understand how ‘setw’ overcomes the problems posed by default field widths. 7: Default Field width Part I: Chapter 2 Fundamentals of C++ 37 The output window of this program is shown along with the program. As one might observe, it is hard to read and compare these numbers. It would be better if they are right justified.

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