Biology of the Lymphokines by Stanley Cohen

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By Stanley Cohen

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The requirement for macrophage protein synthesis may reflect the addition of glycoproteins to the membrane or activities of activatable enzymes that either directly or indirectly remodel the membrane. In addition to changes in membrane electrical characteristics, Thrasher and co­ workers (1973) demonstrated that MIF-rich fluids alter the surface ten­ sion of macrophage membranes. This physical property does not di­ rectly reflect the macrophage's surface charge, but rather the molecular composition and configuration of the membrane and any surface coats associated with it.

However, it points out the complexity of these responses. Possibly the shifting patterns of mediators may be important in the control of inflammatory reactions. Removal of in vivo on-going immune response to the in vitro setting also reveals the likelihood of an in vivo role for lymphokines. Boros et al. (1973) reported that cultures of intact schistosome egg granulomas from mouse livers exposed to soluble antigen, obtained from homogenized parasite eggs in vitro, resulted in MIF production. This report only dem­ onstrated the availability of the appropriate cell population in the granuloma to produce lymphokines.

F. DVORAK It is possible that tumor destruction in these situations is the result of a local accumulation of macrophages and their subsequent activation for tumoricidal activity. Additionally, a recent report by Cohen et al. (1975) suggests another mechanism for lymphokine interaction with tumor cells. This report demonstrated that there is an activity in MIF-rich supernatants that inhibits the movement of tumor cells in a noncytotoxic manner and thus may prevent their spread. Another study has documented that the injection of mediator-rich supernatants from Concanavalin-A-stimulated mouse splenocytes is ef­ fective therapy for NZB/W F mice that develop an autoimmune condi­ tion similar to systemic lupus erythematosus in humans (Krakauer et al, 1977).

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