By Walter E. Aufrecht, Neil A. Mirau, Steven W. Gauley
The beginning and development of towns in antiquity. The foundation and development of towns kinds essentially the most very important chapters in human heritage. during this quantity, 17 researchers current archaeological, epigraphic and textual info at the upward push of urbanism within the historic close to japanese international, Cyprus to Mesopotamia and from Crete to Egypt. subject matters addressed contain the impression of agriculture intensification, of exchange, of craft specialization and of writing at the upward push of towns. the jobs of cultural elites, of ideologies and of relatives among proximal city centres also are tested. The participants to this quantity contain such famous students as William Dever and Donald Redford.
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Additional info for Aspects of Urbanism in Antiquity: From Mesopotamia to Crete (JSOT Supplement Series)
Gelb's (1965) study of the barley ration system used in the Sargonic Period (c. 2350-2150 BCE) showed that the normal monthly allowance for a man was 60 sila3, for a woman 30 sila3, for children beyond infancy between 20 and 30 sila3, and for infants 10 sila3. The system was 'very much standardized all through the Sargonic and Ur III Periods, although deviations of different types are found occasionally' (Gelb 1965: 233, cf. chart 232). The following will assume that the system was already in place in Late Uruk times.
The fixed order of the entries in these word lists permits many an obscure proto-cuneiform sign to be paired with its later form. About 700 of the 5000 proto-cuneiform tablets found at Warka are of the lexical class. The remainder were clearly written for administrative purposes. In the administrative tablets, signs easily recognized as numerals, because of their similarity to later Sumerian numerals, are followed by groups of, presumably, ideographic signs that express the object enumerated and/or the name or office of someone associated SWEET Writing as a Factor in the Rise of Urbanism 37 with the object quantified.
The 19 tablets from the White Temple are gypsum tablets with seal impressions and numeral signs, but no non-numeral signs (Nissen 1987: 50; Englund 1994: 18). 5. The area in question falls within squares Oc XVI 2, Ob-Od XVI 3, and Ob- 40 Urbanism in Antiquity fill, or Zwischenschicht, as Nissen calls it, may also be the terminus ante quern of another 17 tablets; but in the case of this group Nissen makes the attribution with a question mark. 6 As mentioned above, the numeral signs denoting quantities of objects are easily recognized by their distinctive form, circular and bullet-shaped impressions in the clay.