Applied Cell and Molecular Biology for Engineers by G. Waite, L. Waite

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By G. Waite, L. Waite

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The amphipathic (having two natures) character of phospholipids helps to maintain a hydrophilic (polar or water soluble) and hydrophobic (nonpolar or non-water-soluble) orientation to the cell membrane. This feature of the membrane causes water and other polar (water-soluble) molecules and compounds to stay on one side of the membrane. 1. Some hydrophobic molecules (lipid-soluble) are able to pass through the membrane with ease. 2 Cell membrane. Membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.

2-deoxyribose (not shown) lacks the OH group on the 2 position. The shaded atoms on the open chain structure indicate the atoms involved in intramolecular ring closure and the shaded OH groups on the pyranose and furanose rings indicate the alternative location of the OH residues that define the a- and the b-stereochemical forms of the molecules. 9 readily undergo intramolecular cyclization to produce the closed-ring structures shown, with the new intramolecular bond being chemically known as an acetal.

This raises the question: How does a gastric mucosa cell then protect itself from the gastric acidity? The answer lies in the fact that there are millions of goblet cells in the gastric mucosa, or stomach lining, that secrete a viscous, aqueous solution of mucus, which also contains HCO3Ϫ ions. The mucus with its acid neutralizing HCO3Ϫ buffer forms a thick gel layer that covers the surface of the gastric mucosa and prevents the epithelial cells from contacting the acid chyme. The weakening of these mucosal defense mechanisms results in ulcerations and eventually gastric ulcer disease.

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