By Singh, Rajendra
The main basic type of human cognition and motion, and all human languages have built many units to precise it. those contain verbal different types, reminiscent of annoying and point, but additionally adverbials, debris, and ideas of discourse service provider. This booklet is meant as an academic for the learn of the way time is expressed in traditional languages. Its chapters take the reader via a few foundational matters, resembling a number of the notions of time and a number of the ability to specific it; different chapters are dedicated to extra particular questions, resembling the purchase of time, its modelling in formal semantics and in computational linguistics, or how its expression should be empirically investigated.
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Additional resources for Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics, 2008
She had blackish hair / each of her hair was black and each of her eyes was big Reduplication and ‘echo words’ in Hindi/Urdu 33 As for (12a), R is certainly ‘‘intensive’’, but is not equivalent to high degree, as shown by the unnatural character of reduplication for expressing excess, according to most speakers (12c): (12) a. yah rahaˆ tumhaˆraˆ kok, pıˆ lo, ThaNDaˆ-ThaNDaˆ hai here is your coke, drink take, cold-cold is ‘here is your coke, drink it, it is nicely cold’ (not ‘‘very cold’’) b. yah lo tumhaˆrıˆ caˆy.
Jaˆte-jaˆte ve kahte going-going 3p said ‘he used to say while going’ (from Santapt, Chauhan like (6e)) Both the following series exhibit a speciﬁc relation between reduplicated participle (conjunctive, accomplished or unaccomplished) and main verb. If the main verb represents a transient state and the dependent participle an action, the relation is causal (cause-e¤ect: cf. Abbi 1980), which amounts Reduplication and ‘echo words’ in Hindi/Urdu 29 to representing a series of iterations leading to a result (successful accumulation) such as in (7): (7) a.
The «listing» e¤ect: noun or pronoun in the singular The reduplication of singular relatives or interrogatives gives the meaning ‘‘each element, with no exception’’, and suggests a complete series which, again, constructs a plurality made of n singularities, in a non cumulative and non interchangeable way, so that there is no single occurrence we can pick up and locate, and we have to go through the whole set of occurrences – a typical case of scanning too: (3) a. tum kahaˆN kahaˆN gae? tumne kyaˆ kyaˆ dekhaˆ?