By Rolf H. Bremmer Jr.
This can be the 1st textual content e-book to provide a entire method of outdated Frisian. half One starts off with a succinct survey of the historical past of the Frisians in the course of the heart a long time, their society and literary tradition. subsequent persist with chapters at the phonology, morphology, notice formation and syntax of outdated Frisian. This half is concluded by way of a bankruptcy at the previous Frisian dialects and one on difficulties in regards to the periodization of Frisian and the shut courting among (Old) Frisian and (Old) English. half comprises a reader with a consultant collection of twenty-one texts with explanatory notes and an entire word list. A bibliography and a decide on index entire the booklet. Written through an skilled instructor and researcher within the box, An creation to outdated Frisian is a vital source for college kids and researchers of Frisian, outdated English and different ‘Old’ Germanic languages and cultures, and for medievalists operating during this sector. The moment unrevised 2011 reprint of the unique version includes a number of corrections.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary
OE binnan), twiska ‘between’ (cf. G zwischen). , tiān ‘10’ (< WGmc *tehan). , dwān ‘to do’, siān ‘to see’, cf. Meijering (1990). §70 Chronology The loss of final -n must be Proto-Frisian. §71 End of Proto-Frisian changes To sum up, sound changes (4)–(11) and (14)–(15) together contributed to giving Frisian its own, distinctive shape and place within the Ingvaeonic/North Sea Germanic branch of the West Germanic languages (§24). It would seem that especially with soundchange (9), ‘labio-velar mutation’, Frisian began to distinguish itself from the other Ingvaeonic/North Sea Germanic dialects (Bremmer 2008b).
The second vowel in helpe ‘he may help’, the second and third in Drochtenes ‘of the Lord’, etc. §74 Long-vowel system The Old Frisian long vowels can be arranged as follows: front central back [i ˜] [u ˜] [e ˜] [o ˜] [ε ˜] [f ˜] [a ˜] §75 Long vowels a. , rῑda ‘to ride’. ῑ b. , fῑf ‘five’, sῑth ‘companion’. , nῑ ‘new’, hlῑ ‘cover, protection’ (< *hliwi, instrumental case of *hlewa-), knῑ ‘knee’ (cf. hlῑ). , lῑth ‘he lies (down)’ (< *ligith, with palatalized medial consonant, §42). , dῑ ‘day’, wῑ ‘way’.
9 . Cf. Hofmann (1964/1989) on what may be regarded as Ingvaeonic/North Sea Germanic, as well as Århammar (1990: 11), esp. on morphological aspects. . Beside the literature mentioned in Bremmer (1992: 145), see van Helten (1890: §22) and Siebs (1901: §§54–59). 27 28 An Introduction to Old Frisian Probably at the same time, but not as part of the process, Gmc *eu developed to a rising diphthong iā, unless followed by i, which led to iū (also found as iō). §37 Instances Gmc *au > OFris ā: āge ‘eye’, āk ‘also, eke’, bām ‘tree’, bāne ‘bean’, brād ‘bread’, kāp ‘purchase’ (< L *caup-), lāf ‘leaf ’, rād ‘red’, trāst ‘support, encouragement’.