Aluminium. The Challenges Ahead by Nnamdi Anyadike

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By Nnamdi Anyadike

This record analyses the nation of the aluminium industry at the start of the twenty first century, the aftermath of the MoU and at traits and advancements within the proven and rising marketplace economies contemplating the alterations and demanding situations confronted by way of aluminium in its center automobile, packaging and development end-use sectors.

  • A transparent and designated research of the and its significant markets
  • A survey of developments in mining, refining, processing, end-use and consumption
  • Unique and industry forecasts

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44 THE DEVELOPED MARKET ECONOMIES Packaging and packaging waste The EU directive on packaging and packaging waste entered into force on 31 December 1994 and was supposed to have been implemented by all 15 member states by 30 June 1996. However, by the end of the 1990s, some had either failed to submit their planned legislation to the Commission for approval or had introduced legislation incompatible with the directive. The Commission has now proceeded to take action against those member states.

1m tonnes per year) of the FSU produced alumina. However, the investment costs involved in the more difficult task of reducing the high silicon content in the alumina produced from local bauxite or nepheline at the 10 existing refineries is expected to be well above this. THE EUROPEAN INDUSTRY: A PROFILE One clear feature of the European aluminium industry is that the region is a net importer of primary aluminium and if the expected growth in per capita consumption that is forecast by the European industry does materialise in the first decade of the new millennium, then the region will rely even more heavily on imported metal from third countries such as Russia and the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) countries.

In the initial phase of the liberation of the Russian economy, there was a rapid depreciation of the 28 THE DEVELOPED MARKET ECONOMIES rouble, which had the effect of sharply reducing internal production costs in terms of exchange rate value. 36 c/ kWh. 23 c/kWh. But within less than a year average rates had risen, at some plants they had more than tripled, and there was also a much larger spread between the highest and lowest cost smelters. Power costs to the Russian smelters continued to rise in the 1990s and in some cases they exceeded world rates even in dollar terms.

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