Advanced Processes for 193-nm Immersion Lithography (SPIE by Yayi Wei

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By Yayi Wei

This publication is a entire consultant to complex approaches and fabrics utilized in 193-nm immersion lithography (193i). it really is a major textual content for these new to the sector in addition to for present practitioners who are looking to increase their realizing of this most up-to-date expertise. The booklet can be utilized as direction fabric for graduate scholars of electric engineering, fabric sciences, physics, chemistry, and microelectronics engineering and will even be used to coach engineers fascinated by the manufacture of built-in circuits. It offers ideas for choosing serious fabrics (topcoats, photoresists, and antireflective coatings), and optimizing immersion strategies to make sure larger functionality and decrease defectivity at lower price. This ebook additionally comprises sections on shrinking, trimming, and smoothing of the withstand development to minimize characteristic sizes and line-edge roughness. eventually, it describes the hot improvement of 193i together with double publicity and double patterning. Contents - Immersion Lithography and its demanding situations- procedure Steps within the music- face up to Leaching and Water Uptake- touch perspective of Water on face up to Stacks- Topcoat and withstand for Immersion Lithography- Immersion Defects and disorder relief innovations- Antireflection Coatings and Underlayer know-how- face up to diminish and Trim strategies- Double Exposures and Double Patterning- Line-edge Roughness of face up to styles- Extendibility of 193-nm Immersion Lithography (193i+)

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4. K. Suzuki, B. W. Smith, Microlithography: Science and Technology, Second Edition, CRC Press (2007). 5. H. Sewell, “200 nm deep-UV lithography using step-and-scan,” Microelectronic Engineering, 35, Issue 1-4 (March 1997) 177–183. 6. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2007 Edition, Lithography section. 7. : Robert Weast, 67th Edition (1986). 8. D. Flagello, J. Mulkens, B. Streefkerk, and P. Graeupner, “The benefits and limitations of immersion lithography,” J. , 3, 104 (2004).

W. Smith, Microlithography: Science and Technology, Second Edition, CRC Press (2007). 5. H. Sewell, “200 nm deep-UV lithography using step-and-scan,” Microelectronic Engineering, 35, Issue 1-4 (March 1997) 177–183. 6. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2007 Edition, Lithography section. 7. : Robert Weast, 67th Edition (1986). 8. D. Flagello, J. Mulkens, B. Streefkerk, and P. Graeupner, “The benefits and limitations of immersion lithography,” J. , 3, 104 (2004). 9. S. Owa and H.

Sufficient resist thickness is needed to provide enough etch resistance for transferring the patterns to the substrate. Other approaches include coating the resist on a pre-wet BARC surface or using shorter development times. Pre-wetting of the BARC surface with solvent immediately before resist coating can enhance the resist adhesion to the BARC. Line collapse can be caused by the intrusion of developer into the resist–BARC interface. 33 The most effective approach for reducing line collapse is to reduce the surface tension of the rinse water and increase the contact angle (Eq.

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