By Gerald W. Esch, Jacqueline C. Fernández (auth.)
Series Editor: Peter Calow, division of Zoology, collage of Sheffield, England the most objective of this sequence may be to demonstrate and to provide an explanation for the best way organisms 'make a residing' in nature. on the middle of this - their sensible biology - is the best way organisms collect after which utilize assets in metabolism, flow, development, copy, etc. those methods will shape the elemental framework of the entire books within the sequence. every one ebook will be aware of a selected taxon (species, relations, classification or maybe phylum) and may collect details at the shape, body structure, ecology and evolutionary biology of the crowd. the purpose may be not just to explain how organisms paintings, but additionally to think about why they've got come to paintings in that approach. via focus on taxa that are renowned, it truly is was hoping that the sequence won't merely illustrate the good fortune of choice, but in addition express the restrictions imposed upon it via the physiological, morphological and developmental obstacles of the teams. one other vital characteristic of the sequence should be its organismic orientation. every one booklet will emphasize the significance of practical integration within the day to-day lives and the evolution of organisms. this is often an important on account that, even though it can be real that organisms could be regarded as collections of gene made up our minds qualities, they however have interaction with their surroundings as built-in wholes and it really is during this context that particular characteristics were subjected to usual choice and feature evolved.
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Extra resources for A Functional Biology of Parasitism: Ecological and evolutionary implications
The zoogeographical factors influencing the global distribution of both parasites and their hosts also will be considered. 2 Internal environmental factors The range of internal environmental factors affecting the infrapopulation biology of parasites is probably not as great as the external ones but, in many ways, internal factors are more complex than external ones. This is true primarily because phenomena such as behaviour, host and parasite genetics, natural and acquired resistance, ontogenetic factors associated with the aging process, and sex are involved; moreover, several of these frequently act in concert.
For example, Ligula intestinalis is a pseudophyllidean tapeworm that uses many wading and diving birds as a definitive host. The second intermediate hosts for L. intestinalis include fishes of a number of species (Fig. 6) that are infected when they consume copepods carrying procercoids of the parasite. In 1952, van Dobben reported that about 7% of roach, Rutilus rutilus, were infected with plerocercoids of L. intestinalis, while 30% of the roach in stomachs of cormorant definitive hosts were infected.
The case of D. dendriticum and its ant host already has been described. A large number of other parasite-induced, altered behaviours also could be described for both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts (Holmes and Bethel, 1972; Moore, 1983b, 1984a, 1984b; Barnard and Behnke, 1990). For example, Ligula intestinalis is a pseudophyllidean tapeworm that uses many wading and diving birds as a definitive host. The second intermediate hosts for L. intestinalis include fishes of a number of species (Fig.